Monday, June 7, 2010

The Dutch vision on youth soccer

4 V 4

1. The Dutch Vision on youth soccer
- Basic ideas of the Dutch vision
- Requirements that each soccer-practice must have

2. Why 4v4

3. The role of the coach
- How can the coach influence the players?
- Training - and coaching objectives in the different phases

4. The basic form 4 v 4:
- 4 v 4 with 2 small goals without goalkeepers

5. Variations on the basic form:
- 4 v 4 line soccer -- Dribbling game
- 4 v 4 with 4 small goals -- Passing game
- 4 v 4 with 2 large goals without goalkeepers -- Shooting game
- 4 v 4 on a long and narrow field -- Counter game
- 4 v 4 with 2 large goals and goalkeepers -- Crossing and heading game

6. 4 v 4 tournament
- for 16 = 100 participants which requires only one organizer and produces an individual winner
7. Enclosures


In the early eighties the Technical Staff of the Dutch Soccer Association (KNVB), spent a lot of time thinking, studying and practicing, under the leadership of Rinus Michels (national coach), about the youth soccer education in Holland. Much time was spent on thinking about the best way to teach children to play soccer.
Ideas used from street soccer were the foundations of the development of youth soccer and youth coaching in a modern style.
In the early 50's and 60's young players used to learn to play soccer in the streets. They played
before school, during the breaks, and after school. Every day, 6 or 7 days a week.
Time was on their side. There were no adults, parents or coaches, involved in street soccer, except sometimes a bad neighbor or a policeman. All aspects of the game skill; technique, tactics and fitness developed by playing in simple situations, in which WINNING was very important.
Today the situation has completely changed! The streets are too crowded to play soccer and
therefore too dangerous.
The alternative is that children can be members of a soccer club from their sixth year on. At the
most they train two hours a week and play one short match.

Naturally there are children who apart from this kick a ball now and then. But it isn't only soccer anymore. Other sports, hobbies and watching TV often take the priority.

In short: the young soccer player in the year 1994 spends a lot less time playing soccer than
his father used to do.
All the knowledge of street soccer process and the knowledge we now have of how people and
especially children learn, have brought us to the "Dutch Vision" of soccer, soccer training and soccer coaching for junior and senior players.

Total enjoyment from soccer
When players are motivated practicing their sport, they'll learn more from it, and therefore become a better soccer player. So our aim is to get as much pleasure from soccer as possible. From soccer training the most enjoyment can be gained in situations where players can score as much as possible and also have to defend. On a full size pitch children don't have enough touches on the ball and therefore don't learn enough.

So we suggest that children up to the age of 11 should play games with smaller sides and on smaller fields. This way they become more in contact with the ball and in match-situation this improves their vision.

Many repetitions
Repetition is an important aspect in the process of teaching soccer. Practice, practice and practice again. Doing the same thing over and over again, which was in the early days the case in the street.
In training this means:
- many repetitions
- not having to wait
- sufficient balls and goals etc.
- good planning and organization
- quality coaching

Good coaching
Contrary to former street soccer training, matches are accompanied by adults. However, this isn't always successful. It is a pity that youth soccer is often compared with soccer played by adults. Often there are instructions given by coaches that the children don't understand (also parents shouldn't get involved with the coaching)

That's why it is important that coaches understand how children experience soccer and that they know how to make things clear to the children.

Teaching soccer, coaching soccer, requires a lot of knowledge and understanding of the game.

The "Dutch Vision" on coaching is a method designed to teach the youth in a better way.
We are convinced that this is the way to develop better soccer players and to get more enjoyment out of the game.


1. Soccer related objectives
- to score goals
- to build up
- defending

2. Many repetitions
- many turns, good planning
- enough balls, materials

3. Take the group in consideration
- age, skills, level

4. Correct coaching
- influence players
- intervene, give instructions, demonstrate, ask questions

1. WHY 4V4
As a symbol of the Dutch Vision the form 4 v 4 was introduced in 1986. The new face of street

* 4 v 4 is the smallest way of playing the game without losing any of the ingredients that makes soccer
what it is:
- the ball
- opponents
- team-mates
- space
- pressure
- rules
- time
- direction

* All the skills can be developed:
T - Technical, motorical, physical characteristic
I - Insight, awareness (vision)
C - Communication

* Because of the number of players there are always possibilities to play deep, wide or backwards. You are always confronted with match situations.

* Children recognize the different situations that are constantly repeated. Recognizing these situations is important to be able to make the right decision by:
- controlling the ball
- the speed of the ball
- the direction of the pass
- attacking the ball

- less player
- smaller space
- simple rules
- more ball contact
- more intensive social contact
- size of the goals in proportion to the size of the child

- more enjoyment
- more tension
- better co-operation
- better result
- better vision
- more learning moments

11 v 11
22 players and 1 referee
goals: 7.32 x 2.44 meters
4 v 4
5 fields in an official field
40 players or less and no referee
(players settle things themselves)
5 small fields 40 x 20

7 v 7
Two fields in the width of an official field;
28 players and 2 referees
smaller goas: 5 x 2 meters

The coach must develop and increase the soccer-performance of the players.
Therefore coaches have to:

Know the 3 main moments of soccer:
- Possession of the ball
- Possession of the ball by the opponent
- Changing possession (losing the ball, winning the ball)

Have knowledge and insight of the basic skills:
- passing
- receiving and controlling
- dribbling
- shooting
- heading

Give the right instructions
- Give the right examples
- Give the right training forms
- Take into consideration age and level

In youth-soccer up to 11 years old the main objective is to learn the technical skills.
The starting-points are:
- technique is not an objective by itself, but a tool to .......
- there must always be a relation with soccer-objectives
- soccer-insight and technical skills should be developed through game-related situation

For juniors (up to 18 years) that means:
- Development of the tactical aspects of the game.
* vision, awareness and communication

* working together
- Playing soccer with a given task.

* they must be aware that the most important thing is winning the game.
- Reading the game.

* recognizing and judging the situation

A golden rule:
Technical activities should not be considered as the be-all and end-all; The game, maturity as regards playing and matches and matches and pleasure in playing should, generally speaking, be all-important.

Technical activities, such as heading, turning, feinting, ball control, passing etc, are too often
exercised individually and in a way that is out of context; they are taught as individual 'tricks of the trade'.

How can the coach influence the players?

Step by step:
1. Structure soccer in the 3 main moments:
- Possession
- Possession by the opponent
- Changing possession

2. Observe and listen! (read the game)
- Is there close attention?
- Is there atmosphere to perform?
- Do the players master the ball (techniques) in relation to the objectives of the
Insight in the game
- Do the players know the intentions
- Do the players recognize the situation?
- How is the organization, the formation and field-occupation
- Is the space used optimally?
- Are the players positioned well in a relation to each other
- Do the players understand each other.
- Are the players working together?
- All the players alert?

Technique, insight of the game and communication can be distinguished from each other, but can't be separated. They influence one another and are depending on each other.

3. Find the shortcomings (analyze the problems)
In youth soccer up to 11 years old mostly the technique can be considered as a shortcoming. In this age-group the coach basically works on the improvement of the technical skills. In the older age-group the emphasis will be focused more to insight and communication.

For example:
- Players aren't able to take a player on and next they can't score
- Players aren't capable of keeping the ball in their possession, create chances and score
- Players don't recognize the opportunities to shoot on goal and don't have an appropriate
- Players aren't capable of out-playing the opponents in a man advantage situation and they can't score

4. Make the right choice for the correct practice sessions and the correct coaching-remarks, so one can increase the soccer-performance and make their soccer better.
We must strive for an optimal learning-situation:
- soccer related-objectives
- repetition
- lots of fun

- Read the game
- Analyze the problem(s)
- Formulate the objectives, aims of the training
- Realize the training practice
- Evaluate after the next game

5 - 6 year
- Ball-touch / master the ball
- Skill-games in which direction, speed and precision are important
- many-coaching-opportunities

6 - 1 1 year
- Basic - game - maturity
- Technical skills and game-insight have to be developed by playing simplified
- Instructions of technical matter

12 - 16 year
- Game-maturity (11 v 11)
- Team functions per zone and position have to be developed through small-sided an big-sided
- Instructions of technical and tactical matter

17 -18 year
- Competition - maturity
- Game-coaching
- Efficiency and mental aspects


size of the field: 40 x 20 meters
size of the goals: 2 x 1 meter


Building up
- make as much space as possible (wide and deep)
- think deep and play deep as soon as possible
- otherwise use the wide player and then deep
- keep the organisation intact
- wait for the right moment to play the long pass or to ask for the long pass

Create chances
- spread out
- take initiative, anticipate the situation, think ahead
- adjust your position when you've played the ball

Scoring goals
- ask for the ball at the right moment (eye contact)
- take on defenders
- try to score as quick as possible


Preventing scoring chances and scoring
- mark closely to the ball
- give cover to your team-mates
- keep your opponent in front of you and block any shots at goal
- do not foul

Winning the ball
- make space as small as possible depending on the opponents strength (pressing,
dropping back, closing in)
- pressure the opponents position play
- give cover further away from the ball

Stopping the opponents from building up
- holding up the opponents build up
- prevent the long pass, pressure the ball
- force them to play wide, to dribble wide
- pressure, close in

CHANGING POSSESSION (losing or winning the ball)
- prevent the long pass
- pressure the ball
- attack the ball at the right moment
- constantly choose the right position

- play deep as soon as possible
- support
- keep possession


A different organization, different sizes of the field and goals, different rules and different ways of scoring give the game another character.
These different rules deter other demands for the players.

These demands can be related to:
- technical abilities
- physical or mental conditions
- co-operation and communication

The coach has to recognize the specific character of the game to be able to understand and teach.


Size of the field: 40 x 20 meter (or wider). Use cones to mark the goal line.

Important aspect of the game:
- You can score by DRIBBLING the ball over the goal line
- With good position play you can create more scoring chances or 1 v 1 situations
- Defenders must choose the right position between their opponents and the goal line

Demands of the game

Possession of the ball:
- You must play the ball quickly by positional play
- Playing the ball directly is important to create scoring chances
- Changing the direction. of play, vision, and good ball skills are important elements (dribbling and taking your opponents on). These situations have to be coached

Possession of the ball by the opponent:
- Keep your eye on the ball
- Stop your opponents from scoring by good defending and no fouls
- Give cover to your team-mates

Size of the field : 40 x 20 meter
Size of the goals : 2 x 1 meter

Important aspect of the game:
- Creating scoring chances by quickly switching the play from one side of the field to the other.

Demands of the game

Possession of the ball:
- Fast play (direct or two touch)
- Wing players have to be alert to receive the ball and go to the goal as quick as possible.
- The deepest player tries to receive the ball from the player at the back or from the players on the sides. He must be alert and ask for the bail at the right moment (eye contact, selling a "dummy ")

Possession of the ball by the opponent:
- Defenders must see the right moment to attack the ball. For example when your opponent has
been played the ball too hard and he hasn't got it under control.
- Mark your opponents tightly and pressure them into making mistakes.

Size of the field: 40 x 20 meter
Size of the goals: 7.32 x 2.44 meter
(or 5 x 2 meter)

Important aspect of the game:
- By giving your opponent too much room you will concede a lot of goals.

Demands of the game

Possession of the ball:
- When you've got the chance score as quickly as possible with a good shot (a good shooting
technique is important; this has to be coached).
- Make room for a shot by going past your opponent

Possession of the ball by the opponent:
- Defenders must mark tightly, mustn't be beaten, don't be pushed back and eventually block the ball.

4 V 4 ON A LONG AND NARROW FIELD -- COUNTER GAME Size of the field: 40 x 10 meter
Size of the goals: 3 x 2 meter

Important aspect of the game:
To be able to win the ball in a tight area in front of your own goal and then with quick break playing one of your team-mates deep to try and score yourselves.

Demands of the game

Possession of the ball:
- Attacking carefully and with quick positional play in a tight area try to score.
- Good ball control, passing, dribbling etc.

Possession of the ball by the opponent:
- Try to win the ball. When winning the ball there must be a good contact
between the player that runs deep and with the player on the ball. The long
pass has to come as quickly as possible.

GAME Size of the field: 30 x 45/50 meter. Middle line.
Free zones on the sides of the field (5 meter)

Important aspects of the game:
- Scoring with the head or volley.
- Scoring with shot from own half.
- Heading is the most important aspect here, for the strikers as well for the defenders.
- Shooting from outside of a certain area (minimum distance 16 meters).
- Positional play, building up, 1 v 1 on the flanks and crossing the ball are central of
- High balls for the keeper.
- You can use this form to train the individual:

For example:
- Wing players who have to give a good cross.
- Defenders who have to defend.
- Strikers who have to score with the head.

Demands of the game

Possession of the ball:
- Players playing their own positions.
- A careful build up, creating dangerous situations by playing to the flanks or
shooting from a distance.

Possession of the ball by the opponent:
- Defenders are asked to choose a good position but also to mark tightly and stopping their opponents from crossing or shooting

Coaching keys:
- Choice of position
- Vision
- Blocking the ball
- The sliding tackle
- Heading
- Winning the ball
- No fouls

for - 100 participants of 90 minutes ..... and only one organizer

- All participants play at the same time.
- Easy to organize.
- Finally there will be one individual winner.
- Each player has different teammates for five separate matches.
- Games are 10 minutes long, using small goals.
- Players must find out for themselves on which field they have to play.
- Players have to decide their positions amongst themselves.
- Players keep track of the scores themselves.
- There is no referee.
- Children control the rules themselves.
- Each player receives 10 points for a win, 5 for a tie and, regardless of wins or losses, 1 point for each goal his team scores.

- 5 small fields (20 x 40 meter) on an official field.
- Cones/stakes as a goal 2-3 meter wide.
- The fields are marked with letters (see pictures).
- The fields are indicated in such a way that everyone can see it from a central position.
- The number of participants varies between 16 and 50; if there are more than 50 participants
than a second soccer-field has to be used.
- At each field there are 5 pinnies or bibs.
- The game-schedule is posted in such a way that it is visible and readable to the participants.

Next explanation will be given to the participants about:
- how to read the schedule
- the scores
- the changing teams
- the substitution
- the start- and end signal
- which team wears the bibs/pinnies

How to use the schedule?
- Count the number of participants.
- Figure out how many fields are needed (5 players per team).
- Fill in the names of the players and put a number in front of it
- When there are 20 participants then you fill in the column "game 1 " in any given spot: 5 x A /
5 x B / 5 x C/ 5 x D.
- Further the letters will be filled in a different order in the column "game 2".
- After that one has to fill out the same letters in a different order in the column 3" (and so on).

- Be aware that the kids have the same age. If there are 40 participants the group can be divided in 2 groups of 20 (fog example). The conclusion is that both groups needs a separate outline.
- Use several different color felt-pens to fill in the points and the field schedule.
- Make some big copies of the game-schedules.
- Before the games start inspect to see if all the teams have the right amount of players.
- Use a calculator to add the points.
- Use the score-card to note down the final scores of the games.
- During the next playing-round the scores can be filled in on the game-schedule.

Basic rules:
- There is no referee, the children must control the rules themselves.
- There is no goalkeeper.
- Kick-off from the kick-off spot
- After a goal has been scored the player may dribble or pass the ball from the back line.
- Free-kicks are always indirect, the distance from the opponent to the ball must be at least 3
- In stead of throw-ins the ball is kicked in from the side line. (you can't score).
- No off-side.
- Penalties from the kick-off spot without a goalkeeper
- One can score from any position on the field.

1. Example: Pitches (depends on the number of participants)
2. Example: How to use the schedule
3. (Empty) score-sheet and schedule
4. Coach clinic; Royal Dutch Soccer Association
- If a team has 5 players there must be substitutions made during the game (the players can
arrange this themselves).

No comments:

Post a Comment