In the process of teaching/learning soccer, should seek to implement effective teaching methods, or better those to acquire bigger and better sedimentation of learning.
The methods of teaching/learning soccer, has been implemented in accordance with the evolution that soccer has had over the years.
In the early days, learning soccer was made of a way not organized, in the streets, without the presence of any coach, through small games of 3v3, 4v4 … depending on the number of kids available, any kind of area, in spaces with reduced dimensions.
Learning was done, fundamentally, through small games or formal game (Global Method), by trying and errors, in which the player controlled their own learning, which led to the emergence of many players endowed with a great technical virtuosity.
In a second phase, soccer clubs started to become interested in the training (develop) of young players, an organized way, where the learning becomes provided in the soccer fields, with the presence of a coach and ruled by the method based on individual technique (analytical method).
Teaching the game, becomes directed fundamentally for the proper implementation of different technical skills, in a isolated form stereotyped and out the actual context of the game, where it was thought the improved performance Technical Individual require improvements function global of the team. This current technocratic led many coaches to adapt the idea that young players should not start playing soccer, until owns the correct domain of all the technical skills.
The method of teaching based on the technique that still reigns in soccer clubs. If we observe a training session today, it does not differ much from those that were about 20, 30 years ago, with a first part for the warm-up usually done without the ball, a second part intended, the practice of technique exercises, disinherited of the context of the game and a third party dedicated to formal play (the called scrimmage (game) 11v11 or 8v8...).
We face, often during the second part of the training sessions, dedicated to learning the technical skills that they are exercised in isolation from real game situations, making it difficult to maintain motivation and commitment of the players for very extended periods of time, since the situations proposed are infrequently stimulants, by not possess key aspects of the game, that are the opposition, the cooperation and finalization.
However, in most cases when reach the third part of the training session, the formal game (11v11 or 8v8...), and players can not apply the knowledge learned previously, because having exercised the technique in situations isolates and that not occur in the game.
In the framework of education and training, I found that when the technique is addressed through situations that occur outside the requests tactical it acquires small transfers to the game.
I believe that a soccer player assimilated the technique, when it fit to apply properly in games of spaces reduced with a high speed and under strong opposition from adversaries.
Are why I argue that the true dimension of the technique rests in the utility to serve the intelligence and capacity of tactical decision of the players and teams. Good performers are, first, an individual can choose the most appropriate techniques to meet the various configuration of the game, because that, teaching and training the soccer techniques, cannot be restricted to bio-mechanical aspects, that are, the gesture, but all the demands specialty of their intelligent adaptation to the situations of the game.
If we want to have in the future intelligent players, are fundamental provide them greater knowledge of the tactical game, because we know that it is important for their future evolution, so do not know how to perform a particular technique, but fundamentally know when, where and why do it. Then, on learning the game, teaching technique and tactics must be inseparable.
In most recent phase, some coaches start to realize that teaching the game directionally exclusively for the technical aspects, through situations strictly controlled and predictable, prevented that many young players ad "an understanding Global of the game in aspects most basic, as the position on the field, reading the game, capacity of anticipation, understanding with teammates defensively and attacking, or making correct decisions.
These assumptions led to implementation of a new method of teaching the game. Based on demand, primarily on conditioned games (soccer-games in which they put some constraints, aim of achieving certain objectives of the game - Systematic Method), with a view to develop intelligent players, able to respond adequately to different game situations.
There have 3 different forms to abort the teaching of soccer:
• Global method (Table 1)
• Analytical Method (Table 2)
• Systematic method (Table 3)
Table 1 - Characteristics and consequences of Global Method
Exclusive use of formal game (11x11 or 7x7)
The team and the fundamental basis of learning
Anarchic game, there are no changes to the progress
The game are not decomposed or conditioned
Individual-technical virtuosity in contrast to the anarchy tactics
Various solutions motor's but uncoordinated
Higher level of motivation and commitment of the players
High-incidence of the mechanisms of perception and decision of the movements , which is already present unpredictable situations involving one analyze and making decisions and a different incidence in mechanism of execution
Table 2 - Characteristics and consequences of Analytical Method
• Starts from the situations in analytical techniques for the formal game
• The game are decomposed into elements Technical hierarchical(1 * pass …)
• The sum of the individual performances are equal to the improving of the team
• Mechanization of the game actions
• Since the solutions imposed, having problems in understanding the game
• Obsession of the technique – long time training dedicated to teaching technique and little time devoted to teaching the game
• Low level of motivation, which leads to the young players often not interested in activities to develop
• Low incidence in the mechanisms of perception and decision, because are stable and predictable situations and high incidence of the delivery mechanisms of movement
Table 3 - Characteristics and consequences of Systematic Method
• Breaks the game for particular situations
• The oppositions are the source of the whole process
• The game are decomposed in units functional of increasing complexity (1v1, 3v3, keep-away, Game of the 5 passes …)
• The principles of the game governing the learning (develop)
Learning of the techniques appears in the function of tactics, oriented form
Understanding the mechanisms and the principles of the game
Intelligence tactics, creativity in the actions of the game
More training time devoted to teaching the game that the techniques
Good level of motivation and commitment to the tasks
Greater incidence of the mechanisms of perception and the decision of the movement because appear present unpredictable situations involving analysis and decision-differentiated and an average incidence and sometimes large in the mechanisms of execution whenever there is a need for repetition of certain actions.
If we consider that during a game of soccer the loss of ball due in more than 50% of cases are because a wrong decision and not to a technical failure of execution by the players, these problems need to require from the coaches a better attention in future.
In soccer, the first problem facing the young player are tactical, this are, WHAT TO DO?
Only later, arise the problem HOW TO DO, i.e. the technique question, through the selection of the motor response most appropriate for solving.
Fig.1 – Phases of processing information in a complex tactical action.
PERCEPTION - INFORMATION CAPTURE
Realize - Understand
MENTAL SOLUTION - TREATMENT OF THE INFORMATION
Select - Decide
MOTOR SOLUTION - MOTOR REACTION
Respond - execute
It seems to be necessary to abandon the process of teaching/learning focused solely on individual technique, where it give too much time in learning the technique and little or nothing learning the game, fundamentally for two reasons:
1. The sum of all individual performances, not cause implicitly a refinement of the qualitative team.
2. The learning of technical gestures in an analytical form, not allowing its
effective implementation in the context of the Situation as the game.
Learning Soccer are Fundamentally Learning the Game.
I advocate the implementation of the Systemic method, because begun from the game in order to identify existing problems, passes to the Training for solving the problems identified and back again to the Game, towards to assess the problems identified were resolved (Fig. 2).
Fig.2 - Methodology and implementation in the systematic method
a) Identification of
b) Discovery the solution
Solving the problem:
- Conditioned Game
- Work by sectors
- Individual work
Consolidate the Appropriation
(worked in the Practices)
As an example, if in the course of a game we find that the player on our team has a tendency to clump around the ball, we know we have to solve the problem of agglomeration.
Went to the practice session and we will try to resolve the problem detected, through a game conditioning, impose the following rule: "During the game, no player from that team with the ball, could be a distance of less than 3 meters to the ball carrier, the one who does causes to his team the loss of the ball possession in favor of the opposing team".
After a few sessions, we return again to the games and assess the aspects worked in practice were learned, if not were, back to training to treat the same subject, if have been solved, back to training again, in order to solve other problems have emerged.
Some strategies to following in the teaching/learning of the game:
1. Learning should be phased and progressive: from the known to the unknown, from the easy to the difficult, from least to the most complex.
2. The need for phasing education inevitably leads to division of the game, however this division must always respect when is possible that what the game has of essential, Ie, the cooperation (teammates), the opposition (opponents) and stopping (Shooting).
3. It should be proposed to young players: Playful forms with simple rules, with fewer players, a smaller space, so allow continuity of the actions and greater possibilities for achievement.
The game should always be present at all phases of teaching soccer, because to be at the same time a motivating factor and the best indicator of the evolution of the players.